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The effect is most commonly associated with a nuclear explosionbut any sufficiently energetic detonation or deflagration will produce the same effect. Some volcanic eruptions and impact events can produce natural mushroom clouds. Mushroom clouds result from the sudden formation of a large volume of lower-density gases at any altitude, causing a Rayleigh—Taylor instability.
Wrong Way - Arco - Deeper Side mass of gas plus entrained moist air eventually reaches an altitude where it is no longer of lower density than the surrounding air; at this point, it disperses, drifting back down see fallout. The stabilization altitude depends strongly on the profiles of the temperature, dew point, and wind shear in the air at and above the starting altitude.
Although the term appears to have been coined at the start You Are Like The Wind - Dee Clark - The Delectable Sound Of Dee Clark the s, mushroom clouds generated by explosions were being described centuries before the atomic era.
A contemporary Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses by an unknown artist of the Franco-Spanish attack on Gibraltar shows one of the attacking force's floating batteries exploding with a mushroom cloud, after the British defenders set it ablaze by firing heated shot.
InGerhard Vieth published a detailed and illustrated account of a cloud in the neighborhood of Gotha that was "not unlike a mushroom in shape". The cloud had been observed by legation counselor Lichtenberg a few years earlier on a warm summer afternoon. It was interpreted as an irregular meteorological cloud and seemed to have caused a storm with rain and thunder from a new dark cloud that developed beneath it.
Lichtenberg stated to have later observed somewhat similar clouds, but Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses as remarkable. The Halifax Explosion produced one.
The Times published a report on 1 October of a Japanese attack on Shanghai in China which generated "a great mushroom of smoke". During World War II, descriptions of mushroom clouds were relatively common.
The atomic bomb cloud over NagasakiJapan was described in The Times of London of 13 August as a "huge mushroom of smoke and dust". Laurencethe official newspaper correspondent of the Manhattan Projectwho accompanied one of the At The Mountains Of Madness - Listen Featuring Mel Martin - Listen Featuring Mel Martin aircraft that made the bombing run.
He wrote of the bomb producing a "pillar of purple fire", out of the top of which came "a giant mushroom that increased the height of the pillar to a total of 45, feet". Later inthe Operation Crossroads nuclear bomb tests were described as having a " cauliflower " cloud, but a reporter present also spoke of "the mushroom, now the common symbol of the atomic age ". Mushrooms have traditionally been associated both with life and death, food and poison, making them a more powerful symbolic connection than, say, the "cauliflower" cloud.
Mushroom clouds are formed by many sorts of large explosions under earth's gravity, but they are best known for their appearance after nuclear detonations. Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses gravity, the explosive's by-product gases would remain spherical. Nuclear weapons are usually detonated above the ground not upon impact, because some of the energy would be dissipated by the ground motionsto maximize the effect of their spherically expanding fireball and blast wave.
Immediately after the detonation, the fireball begins to rise into the air, acting on the same principle as a hot-air balloon. One way to analyze the motion, once the hot gas has cleared the ground sufficiently, is as a 'spherical cap bubble',  as this gives agreement between the rate of rise and observed diameter. As it rises, a Rayleigh—Taylor instability is formed, and air is drawn upwards and into the cloud similar to the updraft of a chimneyproducing strong air currents known as " afterwinds ", while, inside the head of the cloud, the hot gases rotate in a toroidal shape.
When the detonation altitude is low enough, these afterwinds will draw in dirt and debris from the ground below to form the stem of the mushroom cloud.
After the mass of hot gases reaches its equilibrium levelthe ascent stops, and the cloud starts flattening to the characteristic mushroom shape, usually aided by surface growth due to the decaying turbulence. Nuclear detonations produced high above the ground might not create mushroom clouds with a stem. The heads of the clouds themselves consist of highly radioactive particles, primarily the fission products and other weapon debris aerosols, and are usually dispersed by the wind, though weather patterns especially rain can produce problematic nuclear fallout.
Detonations significantly below ground level or deep below the water for instance, nuclear depth charges also do not produce mushroom clouds, as the explosion causes the vaporization of a huge amount of earth and water in these instances, creating a bubble which then collapses in on itself; in the case of a less deep underground explosion, Heavy Crown - Iggy Azalea - Reclassified produces a subsidence crater.
Detonations underwater but near the surface produce a pillar of water, which, in collapsing, forms a cauliflower-like shape, which is easily mistaken for a mushroom cloud such as in the well-known pictures of the Crossroads Baker test. Underground detonations at low depth produce a mushroom cloud and a base surgetwo different distinct clouds.
The amount of radiation vented into the atmosphere decreases rapidly with increasing detonation depth. With surface and near-surface air bursts, the amount of debris lofted into the air decreases rapidly with increasing burst altitude. In contrast, megaton-range explosions tend to have most of their radioactivity in the lower third of the mushroom cloud. At the moment of the explosion, the fireball is formed. The ascending, roughly spherical mass of hot, incandescent gases changes shape due to atmospheric friction and cools its surface by energy radiation, turning from a sphere to a violently rotating spheroidal vortex.
A Rayleigh—Taylor instability is formed as the underneath cool air initially pushes the bottom fireball gases into an inverted cup shape.
This causes turbulence and a vortex that sucks more air into its center, creating external afterwinds and cooling itself. The speed of its rotating slows down as it cools, and may stop entirely during later phases. The vaporized parts of the weapon and ionized air cool into visible gases, forming the early cloud; the white-hot vortex core becomes yellow, then dark red, then loses visible incandescence.
With further cooling, the bulk of the cloud fills in as atmospheric moisture condenses. As the cloud ascends and cools, its buoyancy lessens, and its ascent slows. If the size of the fireball is comparable to the atmospheric density scale heightthe whole cloud rise will be ballisticovershooting a large volume of overdense air to greater altitudes than the final stabilization altitude.
Significantly smaller fireballs produce clouds with buoyancy-governed ascent. After reaching the tropopausethe bottom of the region of strong static stability, the cloud tends to slow its ascent and spread out.
If it contains sufficient energy, the central part of it may continue rising up into the stratosphere as an analog of a standard thunderstorm. Smaller-scale explosions penetrating the tropopause generate waves of higher frequency, classified as infrasound. The explosion raises a large amount of moisture-laden air from lower altitudes. As the air rises, its temperature drops, and its water vapour first condenses as water droplets, and later freezes as ice crystals.
The phase changes release latent heatheating the cloud and driving it to yet higher altitudes. I Want You To Know - Cliff Richard - Original Album Series (Box Set, Album, Album, Album, Album, Alb mushroom cloud undergoes several phases of formation.
The shape of the cloud is influenced by the local atmospheric conditions and wind patterns. The fallout distribution is predominantly a downwind plume. However, if the cloud reaches the tropopauseit may spread against the wind, because its convection speed is higher than the ambient wind speed. At the tropopause, the cloud shape is roughly circular and spread out. The initial color of Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses radioactive clouds can be colored red or reddish-brown, due to presence of nitrogen dioxide and Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses acidformed from initially ionized nitrogenoxygenand atmospheric moisture.
In the high-temperature, high-radiation environment of the blast, ozone is also formed. It is estimated that each megaton of yield produces about tons of nitrogen oxides.
The ozone gives the blast its characteristic corona discharge -like smell. The droplets of condensed water gradually evaporate, leading to the cloud's apparent disappearance. The radioactive particles, however, remain suspended in the air, and the now-invisible cloud continues depositing fallout along its path. The stem of the cloud is gray to brown in a groundburst, as large amounts of dust, dirt, soil, and debris are sucked into the mushroom cloud. Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses produce white, steamy stems.
Groundbursts produce dark mushroom clouds, containing irradiated material from the ground in addition to the bomb and its casing, and therefore produce more radioactive fallout, with larger particles that readily deposit locally.
A higher-yield detonation can carry the nitrogen oxides from the burst high enough in atmosphere to cause significant depletion of the ozone layer. A double mushroom, with two levels, can be formed under certain conditions. For example, the Buster-Jangle Sugar shot formed the first head from the blast itself, followed by another one generated by the heat from the hot, freshly formed crater.
The fallout itself may appear as dry, ash-like flakes, or as particles too small to be visible; in the latter case, the particles are often deposited by rain. Large amounts of newer, more radioactive particles deposited on skin can cause beta burnsoften presenting as discolored spots and lesions on the backs of exposed animals.
The cloud contains three main classes of material: the remains of the weapon and its fission products, the material acquired from the ground only significant for burst altitudes below the fallout-reducing altitude, which depends on the weapon yieldand water vapour.
The bulk of the radiation contained in the cloud consists of the nuclear fission products ; neutron activation products from the weapon materials, air, and the ground debris form only a minor fraction. Neutron activation starts during the neutron burst at the instant of the blast itself, and the range of this neutron burst is limited by the absorption of the neutrons as they pass through the Earth's atmosphere. Most of the radiation is created by the fission products.
Thermonuclear weapons produce a significant part of their yield from nuclear fusion. Fusion products are typically non-radioactive. The degree of radiation fallout production is therefore measured in kilotons of fission. Were it to be detonated at or near the surface, its fallout would comprise fully one-quarter of all the fallout from every nuclear weapon test, combined. Initially, the fireball contains a highly ionized plasma consisting only of atoms of the weapon, its fission products, and atmospheric gases of adjacent air.
As the plasma cools, the atoms react, forming fine droplets and then solid particles of oxides. The particles coalesce to larger ones, and deposit on surface of other particles.
Larger particles usually originate from material aspired into the cloud. Particles aspired while the cloud is still hot enough to melt them mix with the Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses products throughout their volume. Larger particles get molten radioactive materials deposited on their surface.
Particles aspired into the cloud later, when its temperature is low enough, do not become significantly contaminated. Particles formed only from the weapon itself are fine enough to stay airborne for a long time and become widely dispersed and diluted to non-hazardous levels. Higher-altitude blasts which do not aspire ground debris, or which aspire dust only after cooling enough and where the radioactive fraction of the particles is therefore small, cause much smaller degree All My Loving - Paul McCartney - Out There Osaka 1st localized fallout than lower-altitude blasts with larger radioactive particles formed.
The concentration of condensation products is the same for the small particles and for the deposited surface layers of larger particles. The volume, and therefore activity, of the small particles is almost three orders of magnitude lower than the volume of the deposited surface layers on larger particles.
For higher-altitude blasts, the primary Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses forming processes are condensation and subsequent coagulation. For lower-altitude and ground blasts, with involvement of soil particles, the Mushroom Cloud - Kick To Kill - Black Kisses process is deposition on the Il Doppio Destino - Nistri* - Fiori Carones* - Nistri - Fiori Carones particles.
A low-altitude detonation produces a cloud with a dust loading of tons per megaton Snoops Upside Ya Head - Snoop Doggy Dogg* - Tha Doggfather yield.
A ground detonation produces clouds with about three times as much dust. For a ground detonation, approximately tons of soil per kiloton of yield is melted and comes in contact with radiation. The fireball volume is the same for a surface or an atmospheric detonation.
In the first case, the fireball is a hemisphere instead of a sphere, with a correspondingly larger radius. The particle sizes range from submicrometer- and micrometer-sized created by condensation of plasma in the fireballthrough 10— micrometers surface material agitated by the blast wave and raised by the afterwindsto millimeter and above crater ejecta.
The size of particles together with the altitude they are carried to, determines the length of their stay in the atmosphere, as larger particles are subject to dry precipitation. Smaller particles can be also scavenged by precipitationeither from the moisture condensing in the cloud itself or from the cloud intersecting with a rain cloud.
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