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Bilealso called gallgreenish yellow secretion that is produced in the liver and passed to the gallbladder for concentration, storage, or transport into the first region of the small intestinethe duodenum. Its function is to aid in the digestion of fats in the duodenum. Bile is composed of bile acids and salts, phospholipids, cholesterolpigments, water, and electrolyte chemicals that keep the total solution slightly alkaline with a pH of about 7 to 8. Bile is continually secreted from the cells of the liver into the common bile duct and gallbladder; once in the gallbladder it is usually concentrated to about 5 times—and sometimes as Candida - Jeff And Eddie Skeets Orchestra - Music Played at the Bavarian Haus as 18 times—the strength of the original secretion.
The amount of bile secreted into the duodenum is controlled by the hormones cholecystokininsecretingastrinand somatostatin and also by the vagus nerve. About to 1, ml of bile before concentration are produced daily by the liver.
Bile salts are composed of the salts of four different kinds of free bile acids cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic acids ; each of these acids may in turn combine with glycine or taurine to form more complex acids and salts. Bile salts and acids can be synthesized from cholesterol or extracted from the bloodstream by the liver. They pass from the liver into the small intestine, where they act as detergents to emulsify fat and reduce the surface tension on fat droplets to prepare them for the action of pancreatic and intestinal fat-splitting enzymes.
The salts are large, negatively charged ions that are not readily absorbed by the upper region of the small intestine; consequently, they remain in the small intestine until most of the fat is digested. In the lower small intestine, the salts and acids are absorbed and passed back into Passage Away From Difficulty - More Bile De Vices - Suruga Bay Mix bloodstream until they are once again extracted by the liver; this cycle, from the liver to the small intestine and blood and then back to the liver, is called enterohepatic circulation.
Some salts and acids are lost during this process; these are replaced in the liver by Passage Away From Difficulty - More Bile De Vices - Suruga Bay Mix synthesis from cholesterol. The rate of synthesis is directly related to the amount of acids and salts lost. Bile salts do not normally reach the colon; when they do, however, they may inhibit the absorption of water and sodium, causing a watery diarrhea.
Bile salts and acids are transported in a fluid that contains water, sodium, chloride, and bicarbonates. This fluid is produced in the liver, and it serves to neutralize hydrochloric acid passed from the stomach into the small intestine.
Water-insoluble wastes that the liver removes from blood, such as cholesterol, steroids, drugs, and hemoglobin pigments, are carried in the fluid to the excretory system. Hemoglobin pigments are broken down, producing several bile fluid compoundsincluding bilirubinwhich has no known function other than that of a colouring agent. Traces of other substances can also be found in bile including mucusserum proteins, lecithinneutral fats, fatty acids, and urea.
Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Bile biochemistry. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Chemicals excreted in the bile are eventually eliminated in the feces. The bile pigments, although first identified in mammalian tissues or products e. Various members of the bilichrome series are encountered in invertebrates, lower vertebrates, and in red algae and green Berlin 2011 - Annette Humpe - Zeitgeschichte - Das Beste Von Und Für Annette Humpe. The liver secretes bile, a digestive fluid; metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; stores glycogen, vitamins, and other substances; synthesizes blood-clotting factors; removes wastes and toxic matter from the blood; regulates blood volume; and destroys old red blood cells.
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